Thousands of oil lamps are scintillating in the starry night of Dharamsala, in the Indian Himalayas at a height of 1800 metres. It is here that the Tibetan community in exile has taken refuge around its spiritual and temporal leader, the 14th Dalaï lama. And today Dharamsala is celebrating the anniversary of the founder of the « Yellow Hats » the sect of which the Dalaï lama is the head: young monks in saffron robes are endlessly circling the temple, while chanting haunting Tibetan religious hymns; one can hear in the crisp Himalayan air the sound of trumpets blowing off in some far-off monastery, while nearby an old lama is beating Tibetan cymbals. Everywhere, young children, laughing, running, are lighting candles to celebrate the birth of their creed. At last, Tenzin Gyatso, Fourteenth Dalaï lama, Ocean of Joy, Prefect Lotus, All Compassion, and accessorily Nobel Laureate, appears at the top of the temple. The crowd of Tibetans below, some of whom have just arrived from Tibet, crossing illegally the Indian border at night, after days of arduous and dangerous walking, prostrate themselves, muttering their immense joy: they have reached their goal, they have seen the living God…
But never has there been a darker hour in the history of the Tibetan people. Not only the Chinese, who invaded Tibet in 1959, erased most of Tibetan culture and religion in Tibet (see box), but the last living symbol of Tibetan aspiration of Tibetan freedom, the Dalaï-lama is in grave danger. On the 28th January 1989, died the Panchen lama, second after the Dalaï lama, in the hierarchy of the Yellow hats. During his life, the Chinese tried – vainly – to control him and to make him speak against the Dalaï lama, and he spent several years in Chinese jails where he was tortured. Traditionally, the Tibetans have always believed that the souls of their great lamas quickly reincarnate themselves in the bodies of young boys, generally of a rural background – and it is thus that all the Dalaï-lamas’reincarnations, including the present one, have been discovered. But this time the Chinese decided to chose their own Panchen lama, so that they could manipulate him. Knowing that the Tibetan people would never accept a panchen lama which was not chosen according to the tradition, the Chinese Government nominated on the 17th July 1993, to find the reincarnation of the Panchen lama, a group of specialised monks, at the head of which they put Chadrel Rimpoche, whom they thought as anti-dalaï lama. The Rimpoche and his team short listed 25 young boys, who corresponded to the last indications left by the Panchen lama before dying (generally visions which are couched in poems and give some clues of the physical place where he is to be searched for). But unknown to the Chinese, Chadrel Rimpooche sent a list and the photos of those young boys to the Dalaï lama. And on the 14th May 95, taking the Chinese by complete surprise, the dalaï lama nominated one of those boys, Gedhun Choeki Nyima, as the 11th Panchen Lama. Furious, the Chinese had the Chadre Rimpoche and the young boy, plus his parents, arrested and taken to an unknown destination in China. Then they proceeded, after having accused the Dalaï lama to interfere in Tibet’s religious affairs, (a joke if there is one), to invoke an obscure sino-tibetan treaty of the 16th century, between the Manchus of the Qing dynasty and the 5th Dalaï lama, which gave the Chinese emperor power to chose the panchen lama. A hundred Tibetan lamas were forcefully flown to Beijing to give a semblance of religious assent to the whole thing and on the 8th December last, the name of Gyaltsen Norbu, one of the 24 other candidates (the Dalaï lama’s choice was omitted), was drawn from a Golden Urn, another ancient Chinese custom, as the « true » Panchen lama. « Funny, smiled the dalaï lama, in his retreat in Dharamsala, the boy’s parents are known to have been for years faithful members of the Tibetan Communist party, a rare thing in rural Tibet ». But however the Dalaï lama may protest, he has absolutely no control, as all the recent reincarnations of the great lamas, even those he has chosen, such as the Karmapa, the third in the Tibetan hierarchy, are in Tibet, that is in Chinese hands and they will make sure that they will get thoroughly Chinese education. On top of that, 3 Tibetan trained by the Chinese secret police, were arrested last month by the Indian authorities, as they were trying to approach the Dalaï lama. If he ever was assassinated, it might well mean the end of Tibet.
The Dalaï lama is coming out of a three weeks’ retreat and François Gautier is the first journalist he meets after the nomination of the Chinese Panchen lama. He is said to be tired and weary and affected by a worrying chronic cough, which has left his doctors puzzled. « Only half an hour interview and no photos » his secretary had said. But as soon as the dalaï lama sees me -it is the fifth time I meet him- he calls me over and shows me his prize orchids in his house, which he looks after himself. His bedroom is simple but beautiful and overlooks the Himalayas whose eternal snows, are glittering in this early winter afternoon. Later we sit together in his office for one of the most comprehensive interviews he has ever given .
Q. You said once that Tibet is going through a « black karma ». What do you mean by that ?
A. The sufferings that the Tibetan people are experiencing today at the hands of the Chinese, are due to a bad karma, bad actions committed in previous lives. But you have to understand that different persons can commit a bad karma at different times, in different places and under different nationalities. And done day by the Grace of God, all these persons find themselves together at the same time in the same place, under the same nationality and repay their karma together. This is what has happened in Tibet.
Q. But you also said that this black karma can also be turned into a white karma…
A. It is the people who are tortured, the people who are lying trampled on the ground, those who are shot, who are the ultimate winners. From a Buddhist view point, much depends on their motivation at the time of suffering: that is without hatred, without desire of revenge, wanting to hurt the Chinese. Of course, the desire to reinstate truth, freedom, that is not wrong. Thus by suffering one whitens all negative karma as it is done now in Tibet. In the same way, one could say that the people who are torturing, trampling others on the ground, killing human beings, they are the losers, because one day, sooner or later, in this life or another one, they will have to pay for this suffering they are inflicting upon others. This is a mathematical and logical process, there is no question of sin or guiltiness here.
Q. You mean that all innocent people who are suffering, is it because they have done some negative karma in the past ?
A. Yes of course, of course. We the Tibetans for instance, who happen to be on the receiving end of Chinese aggressivity, are payiing for our own carelessness: feudalism, or not opening to outside world for instance.
Q. People who are now Tibet, all of them have committed negative karma?
A. Yes, yes, of course.
Q. But if you take an earthquake, so many innocent people are dying. Is it also black karma ?
A. Yes of course.
Q. So there is no injustice in the world ?
A. Oh, in different forms you have to face the suffering consequences of past mistakes in past lives or sometimes even in this life. But if our side bears well, with non-violence, Chinese aggression, it may disappear quickly. Non violence does not mean that Chinese aggression should not be considered as an injustice. It is therefore absolutely right to restore justice.
Q. So the Chinese in turn are creating a black karma for them, which they’ll pay later ?
A. Yes, that’s right. That’s why there is more reason to feel compassion towards the aggressor !
Q. When will the black karma of Tibet become white karma ? How much time do you have to suffer before you find back happiness and harmony ?
A. Now as I told you earlier, just washing negative karma does not mean creating virtuous karma. By suffering we erase negative consequences of negative karma, but that does not mean you create positive karma. For that we need a different effort. But the Tibetans are creating now a very powerful positive white karma now. They are patriotic not on the basis of winner and loser. We don’t enjoy our enemies suffering, we believe in compassion, in human values. And it is that compassion, that belief in human values, which the Chinese need and eventually we can help them. And with these motivations which are true patriotism, this is the way to promote virtuous karma. (The Dalaï lama laughs). Yours was a real philosophical question !
Q. Speaking about virtuous karma, is it white karma that because you have fled Tibet, the West has begun to discover through you Buddhism and people are discovering something different than materialism.
Q. Do you feel that the West is becoming more spiritualized now ?
A. It is difficult to say the West as a whole; but certainly, according to some of my spiritual brothers, like Cardinal Hume in Britain, or the present Pope, they say that nowadays there is revival of interest in spirituality In the world. But out of millions of people, it may be only a few hundred or even thousands show a genuine interest towards spirituality. So I don’t know. But I think that the West is beginning to realise the limitations of material comfort. That is positive, but it does no necessarily mean that they are turning towards spirituality – it could lead to it however.
Q. There are today many friends of Tibet in the West, journalists, writers, politicians, who through you in Dharamsala, have come to have a very strong link with yourself andTibet, who are trying to defend your cause. Do you feel when you see some of these people that they are reincarnations of Tibetans you have known in previous lives ? Do you recognise some of them ?
A. According to Buddhist logic, it is very possible that these people without apparent reasons very genuinely, very deeply have a concern or feeling for Tibet. So obviously, there must be some previous connection (and one may be standing in front of me, he says laughing). Yes with some westerners,I feel a very strong connection, ut I have no powers to see that I have known these people before (he laughs). But I can believe it, because there is no apparent reason why they should have such a strong connection with us and as a Buddhist I must say that there must be certainly it is due to their previous lives. Some of my western friends had experiences in their dreams of some unknown places which seem very similar when retold to Tibetan places as we know them. Or others when they visited Lhassa, although it was their first visit, they feel at once it is something familiar which they have known before. So I believe it is some past life’s connection.
Q. You have travelled all over the world so many times, you have met so many people, journalists politicians, you have become a symbol, a Nobel laureate even; Do you think that all this activity has helped the Tibetan people in Tibet practically ?
A. Of course, of course. But my main motivation is helping, serving humanity. I am not only thinking of Tibet although it is of course my main goal. I am always referred as the Dalaï lama of Tibet, nobody says dalai lama of China. But it is true that I am known all over the world today it is also true that the Chinese dislike intensely these visits abroad, because it always brings in the name of Tibet.
Q. Recently, Indian police caught some Tibetan spies trained by the Chinese, who were trying to approach you in Daharamasala. Do you think that the Chinese have succeeded in turning some of the Tibetan youth against their own people ?
A. After 45 years of occupation it is of course possible that a minority of Tibetans have been turned around by the Chinese, but very few, very few. And often we have experienced in these last few years that as soon as they reach here, these Chinese spies, who have been receiving some special training by the Chinese military, they report to us and quietly return to Tibet. So they’re still on our side, which I say for the Tibetan people as whole. Out of a six millions Tibetans, there are maybe few thousands who are pro-Chinese.
Q. But for instance, how did the Chinese manage to get all these lamas to come to Beijing for the choosing of the Panchen lama ?
A. They told these lamas: this meeting is going to be very important, so if you excuse yourself then we will consider you as pro-dalai lama and thus reactionary and you will have to pay for the consequences. This is how they were brought to Peking and you can notice on their faces shown on Chinese television that they are sullen and closed.. Of course, few of them are more active.
Q. Do you fear for your life sometimes. What would happen to Tibet if you were killed ?
A. (Laughing) Many Tibetans are trusting me and they expect a lot of me so if I am no longer there, it will be temporarily a great set back. But in the long run, Tibet is not only me but a whole nation. So therefore as a nation with a long spiritual history, provided Tibetan people survive, the struggle will remain, there is no doubt about. But temporarily it would be a great setback; therefore although I dislike it, I have to take considerable security precautions.
Q. Do you really feel the Chinese would try to assassinate you ?
A. It is possible.
Q. Now speaking about the communists; what do you think of Staline comments on the Pope: « how many divisions does he have» ?
A. (He laughs for a long time). In one way I have zero divisions. In another, six million Tibetans, plus all those who follow Tibetan Buddhism in the rest of the world; I could even add: a growing number of Chinese, specially those who are studying abroad and are exposed to the truth about Tibet and are showing solidarity with us and even in China. Last year for instance, one group of Chinese in Shangaï sent a petition to the Chinese government to let go of Tibet and the Chinese dissident Wei Jing Chen (recently condemned by the Chinese to 14 years in jail) had sent a very strong letter to Deng Xiaoping three years back, mentioning that Tibet should be an independent nation. Thus one of the crimes he was accused was his support of Tibet.
Q. Sometimes Tibetans say that a great soul can reincarnate itself in two different bodies, which will express two different aspects. Do you think it could have happened in the case of the Panchen lama, who has today two reincarnations: yours and the one chosen by the Chinese ?
A. Oh, but a great soul can even reincarnate itseld in a hundred bodies…Yes it is true that the Chinese boy was one of the 25 candidates chosen by the monks. (Long silence). But the way the Chinese have manipulated the whole thing is of course very aggressive.
Q. When do you see his photo, do you feel the boy has anything of the PL in him, or is he just an ordinary boy ?
A. (Long silence). I don’t know, it’s hard to say. Of course according to my investigations and divinations, the other one is number one, the only one, perfect, so I chose him. But as for the Chinese choice, at least we will have one Tibetan boy who will get the best of facilities, educational wise and otherwise. That is good (and he laughs)
Q. But what is your greatest concern about t the Panchen lama’s reincarnation ?
A. My own Panchen lama? His life and also his health. You see, without damaging his life, they can damage his brain with drugs, it’s very possible. I don’t know where he is held, although I have heard it is near Beijing. (Long silence).The only chance for him is the expression of concern in the world about his whereabouts and his health as well as of his parents and Chadrel Rimpoche.
Q. But do you think the Chinese have a plan to hijack the Panchen lama’s reincarnation so that they can manipulate him when he has to chose your own reincarnation ? Why else shoukd they have risked such a blatant manipulation, which fooled nobody ?
A. Firstly it’s nothing new to me. Since the Chinese occupation of 1950, every aspect of Tibetan life: political, cultural, social, economical, and even religious today, has been controlled by the Chinese who want that every Tibetan acts according to their own wish. That’s it. Their immediate purpose is to show that they have the power, that they can do whatever they wish – not the Dalaï-lama.
Q. Do you think that the Chinese leadership could make the same gesture than the one made by Rabin and Arafat ?
A. I think ultimately that’s the only way for us. They have to take our feelings in consideration and come to a mutual agreement.
Q. Is Tibet being massacred ecologically ?
A. (Retell the Yamdrok story) The Chinese attitude is: we will get whatever we can extract from Tibet, whatever we can exploit. Whenever for example they find a mine, if it is not too precious, then the local people get the share; when it is precious, such as uranium, or gold, no local Tibetan is allowed there; they put Chinese soldiers and they take what they want without bother about the environmental effect. Take an another instance Chinese buildings in Tibet are very cheap and meant to last only for a few years, whereas in China they are meant to be perfect, last a long time and even withstand earthquakes. One could even say that the present ecological Chinese policy in Tibet is equal to the one cultural and social one during the cultural revolution (when most of the monasteries and archives were destroyed by young Chinese) It is the same thing with the PL which they are trying to impose upon us. But I don’t think they would be able to function in other parts of China, they would not be accepted any more.
Q. The Chinese have today acknowledged that they are dumping nuclear waste on the Tibetan plateau.
A. Yes for a long time we had a very strong suspicion because in some areas which are restricted to Tibetans and manned by Chinese soldiers, many animals around are giving birth to malrformed babies.
Q. And nuclear missiles ?
A. Oh yes, they are very much there, we know exactly the sites: in Nachunga, central Tibet; the whole world including the Americans know about it now (see box). We know too that they produce nuclear weapons in Ichinge in East Tibet and in two other places, one in South-east Tibet, one in north-east.
Q. (The DL starts coughing). Do you want to rest a bit your holiness?
A. No, no. this type of illness is quite funny: no pain, no problems of sleep, or digestion, but I cannot control the cough. My ministers can use it as an excuse: the Dalaï lama is not well, so no audience ! I am trying to cure myself with Tibetan medecines…
Q. There are some films being shot about you this year (1996). One by Frenchman Jean Jacques Annaud based on the book « 7 years in Tibet » by Henrich Harrer (the story of a German imprisonned by the British in India at the break of World War II, who escapes to Tibet and becomes the young Dalaï lama’s tutorand initiates him to the Westetrn worls) – and the other by Martin Scorcese scripted by Harrisson Ford and his wife, which retells your childhood…
A. Oh yes, I know. Harrer told me about the first one and I have gone through the whole script of the second one, myself with Harrison Ford and his wife and I found it very good.
Q. Are they Buddhists ?
A. I don’t think so but both Harrison Ford and his wife care very deeply for Tibet. When I corrected the mistakes in their script and I pointed out some of the horrors that the Tibetan people have gone through since 1950, both of them, particularly Harrison Ford, started crying and I myself felt very sad while recollecting some incidents. But Harrson (the Dalai lama starts laughing), although he is a very strong man, is actually quite simple and gentle. He and Mrs Ford made a great effort about one of Tibetan dissidents. They visited Tibet in 1993 and they had a Tibetan as a tour guide, whose name was Riching Geyde, who later was arrested by the Chinese as he wanted to give some European delegation some information about human right abuse in Tibet. But Mr and Mrs Ford managed to get him released after much effort.
Q. So you think both these films are good and positive ?
A. Yes, very good, they will help to let the world know about the plight of Tibetan people.
Q. And did Jean Jacques Annaud ask to meet you ?
A. No he never did. But does not matter, any good story about Tibet is positive.
Q. You have seen little Buddha. did you like it ?
A. Yes it was good, I liked it. It helps the western people to get an introduction to Asian thought.
Q. What is the role of women in the history of Tibet ?
A. I agree that generally some kind of discrimination was wrought upon them in old Tibet. But compared to the plight of Chinese and Indian women, Tibetan women always had a better deal, more equal to men. Take some of the high reincarnations of our lamas, many of them are women. So at least in the religious field they are OK, although in some other aspects of Tibetan life, men thought of themselves as superior. For instance, traditionally there are no women amongst Tibetan Governement officials. But here in Dharamsala we have reversed the rule: they are a lot of women in our Government in exile (The Dalaï-lama has instituted in exile a full-fledged governement apparatus with Minsiters and deputies all democartically elected and this for the first time in the history of Tibet). Take also medicine: most of our great practitioners are often women, even in Tibet and are very much respected (In Dharamsala, the clinic of a woman, Dr Dolma, is famous the world over for its herbal medecines used to cure fist stages cancer and herbal contraceptive pills, which when taken for a week have a year-long preventive effect).
Q. But are you not afraid that Tibetan girls now educated here or abroad and which are exposed to western values, will lose their Tibetan roots ?
A. No I don’t think so. You see, firstly you have to make a distinction: one part of Tibetan culture has no value, as it is just a result of social do’s and dont’s. This kind of traditions will change, there is no need to preserve them, better they go. But other parts of Tibetan culture, that is the friendly, compassionate, spiritual aspects, the openess of our women (Tibetan women are generally quite free and have no sexual hang-ups) this is worthwhile to preserve, it has real value.
Q. But if you take sexual liberation in the West, it has had some negative results: it often broke the family system and it led to certain sexual perversion. Do you think it will have the same effect to Tibet. What is the Tibetan attitude towards sexuality ?
A. I feel I is better to have some self-discipline, too much freedom is not good. Sexuality has as its fist role a reproduction role, a biological role and for that both parents need not act like a dog or some other animals. You know even some birds share the same responsibility to looking after their children and feeding them. So we human beings we have the responsibility to look after our young ones and a strong and long lasting marriage is something very important for the children. Stay with one woman one year then divorce and marry another; here one child there another, father of a hundred children (he laughs). Or else you want more wives but do not want children and use all sorts of methods. I think it is too extreme ands this is what is happening in the West. Democracy is one of the systems with the least faults in the world (coughs) but too much freedom without principles, can lead to chaos. I think that in the West sexual life is too extreme, which is not good and it leads to side effects. Too conservative is not good either, as it stifles the souls, so in effect, we need some kind of middle way;
Q. Could you say that Tibetan sexuality has tread the middle way ?
A. (He laughs) You should investigate yourself !
Q. What about birth control ? For instance do you agree that Mother Theresa is against contraception in India a poor country which has so much overpopulation ?
A. You see if the child is already formed inside the womb and if by any means you flush it and have an abortion this is wrong. But then to prevent a child from being conceived with any birth control methods that is all right . Pills are OK; even in Tibet we have a herbal pill which we take for one week and gives safe sex for one year, that is OK. Preventive measures are good. Or even put some rubber (the DL makes a gesture as of he is putting a condom over his finger). (Long silence). Ideally, self discipline, as the Mahatma Gandhi enjoined, would be best; but if you can’t, then put something, or take some medicine for prevention. But killing after the conception, is wrong even if the foetus is tiny.
Q. Your holiness, some people feel that the survival of Tibet is essential for the spiritual future of humanity. What would happen if Tibet would die ?
A. I think that Tibetan spirituality can help humanity in some way. So if Tibet goes, it will be a very sad day for this planet. But worse a great damage will happen to some parts of Asia where Tibetan Buddhsim has spread: some parts of China, Russia and Nothern India.
Q. Why is that ?
A. Tibetan culture and Tibetan spirituality are two different things: Buddhist culture deals with society and Tibetan spirituality with true Buddhism, which is more connected with the individual. And true Buddhism brings harmony, peace love of the neighbour. You see in Lhassa for instance, there have been quite a few Muslims from Ladhak for three, four hundred years. Since my childhood there is almost no record of quarrel between Buddhists and Muslims; this is the very peaceful, very compassionate atmosphere that Buddhism brings to all. In this way I noticed that these Muslims, although their personal religion is Islam, their personal behaviour is very much influenced by Buddhism. So as long as Tibetan society is influenced by Buddhism, we will be safe. In the Buddhist culture, everything can flourish and can co-exist, as it is more humble, more polished, more compassionate, than many other creeds. thus there is less crime. Thus if you remove that influence from Tibet, the negative consequences of that removal will irradiate to all these countries which have been traditionally influenced by Tibetan Buddhism. On the one hand you have a society which is peaceful without harsh controlling methods. On the other, you can see it today in the world: the more sophisticated police and means of control, the more crimes you have, as in America for instance. So once Tibetan Buddhism is gone, the buddhist culture will also disappear which will affect the several millions of people who follow the traditional Tibetan way of life. In fact I would say about 14, to 15 millions of them: Tibetans are six millions; then another six millions in inner Mongolia outer Mongolia and Tajikistan; another one million in some Russian federation states; another one million in the whole of the Himalayan region; and finally one should also count the growing number of Buddhists in Europe and America, say about 40, to 60.000. And in these communities at present there is comparatively more peace of life. And today as there is more communication with the world, Tibetan Buddhism is preading. You know for instance there are many Christians who have come to Dharamsala and have come to be influenced by our religion. The have remained Christians, but their way of life has become more spiritual and one can say that Buddhism has here also played a positive role. Now look how Chinese communism has destroyed the Chinese way of life; even the Chinese government is trying today to revive the traditional Chinese spititual values. But even if they manage to revive them, Confucianism will never regain the same clarity and all encompassing depth it used to have; thus Chinese might very welml turn towards Tibetan Buddhism. So if Tibet dies, it will affect millions of Chinese who when they are fed up with materialism want to turn once more to spirituality and will not find what is nearest to them. Already there are a number of Chinese showing genuine interest in our forms of Buddhism, as in ancient times, where many Chinese followed Tibetan Buddhism.
Q. Do you really think that Tibetan Buddhism could spread to the world and help it regain some of the spirituality damaged by materialism ?
A. Oh yes, of course that’s obvious: we can help the world with our message of peace and harmony, which is very relevant today. As I told you earlier, Christians can remain Christians, while adopting some Tibetan Buddhists methods which will help them to strengthen their faith.
Q. Do you think that Buddhism is becoming fashionable inthe West today ?
A. Oh yes, (he laughs). But that is positive; although I feel hat westerners who are traditionally been Christians, should stick to their own religion. Of course if there some individual who sincerely feels that the Buddhist way of life is more effective for his inner growth, then it’s all right for him to convert. But it should no be done hurriedly, it must be done very carefully and later he must show respect for all religions, as there are too many Christians who become Buddhists and later spit on their former religion and that is contrary to the spirit of Tibetan Buddhism. But definitely, Tibetan Buddhsim can bring something to humanity in this dark age: I have met a number of scientists, who are atheists, but who told me after discovering Tibetan Buddhism, that it was the religion that was nearest to true scientific scrutiny.
(The secretary of the Dalaï-lama has shown some imaptience for quite some time: the half an hour interview has extended to nearly three times that span. The Dalaï-lama notice hims at last, laughs and says « thank you, thank you, thank you », as if I was to be thanked for the 80 minutes of pure bliss he has just given me. He hands me over a long white ceremonial Tibetan scarf and holds me for a long time clasped in his arms. When I leave, I can hear him coughing for a long time as the next visitor is getting ready to enter his room)……
Chinese genocide in Tibet
Since 1950, when the Chinese invaded this wonderful, peace loving nation, which boasted the highest spiritualised society in the world (although quite feudal), 1,2 million Tibetans have been killed, either directly: shooting, death squads, torture – or indirectly: concentration camps, prison, or famines. 6254 monasteries, most of them ancient, have been razed to the ground. 60% of religious, historical and cultural archives have been destroyed. A quarter million Chinese troops are occupying Tibet. One Tibetan out of ten is still in jail. There are today In Tibet 7,5 million Chinese settlers for six million Tibetans- in many places such as the capital, Lhassa, Tibetans are outnumbered two to one… Do you think these statistics come from the Tibetans themselves? No at all. They are part of Resolution Number 63, adopted by the United States Congress on the 16th May 1989 and they have been substantiated by the American Secret Services. And do you know why China is ready to pay such a heavy price for Tibet, both in terms of the tremendous cost of keeping an occupation army and the harm done to its international image? The answer is simple: China has transferred one third of its nuclear arsenal to Nagchuka, 25O kms away from Lhassa, a region full of huge caves, which the Chinese have linked together by an intricate underground network and where they have placed installed, according to American Intelligence estimates, 90 Intermediate Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles… There are two reasons to it: The first is that this part of Tibet is always covered by a thick blanket of clouds, which makes it extremely difficult for the spy satellites. And the second and most important, is that Tibet is of a great strategic military importance to China, because being on a high plateau, it overlooks…Who? Russia and India! But Russia’s back is broken and it is no more a danger to China and it is thus towards North Indian cities that most of the nuclear missiles are pointed. This raises several important questions. India in her generosity, (through Jawarlhal Nehru), welcomed the Dalaï-Lama and his followers in 1959 and allowed them to settle in Dharamsala, where thanks to their spiritual leader’s guidance, the Tibetans were able to recreate a small Tibet, complete with Government in exile, schools, monasteries, Tibetan medicine and arts. It is actually the only real thing that is left of Tibetan culture and civilisation today -and if ever the Tibetans recuperate Tibet, it will have to be re-transplanted to what has become a near completely Chinese Tibet. But the Chinese have never forgiven India for its generosity and compassion towards the Tibetans.